Basics in Construction


Construction, The term construction refers to an action of building something, typically a structure.

Here the   structure may be made of concrete, steel, wood, and by other mediums. Lets learn about construction. Depending upon the purpose of the building used, they are classified into:

  • Residential
  • Commercial
  • Industrial

Engineers and architects, putting together plan and design into action, to build a structure or  super structure.

Construction generally associated with large structure like homes, bridges, railways, industries and so on. It also includes:

  • Building
  • Renovation
  • Extensions\Additional floors
  • Demolition
  • Rebuilding
  • Maintenance


The term building refers to a completed structure like homes and malls. These structure primarily consist of frame wall roof and foundation.

Generally building are positioned permanently in one location, but not always. The purpose of the building is shelter.

Building ensures protection from sun, wind, rain, snow, and so on. Depending upon the materials used and purpose of building, building regulations are to be followed.


Renovation, Some alterations made to an existing building or old buildings. Due to some specific reasons there is a need for altering the buildings.

  • Improve lifestyle
  • Change in usage of building
  • Change in position of openings/windows
  • Erecting/demolishing walls.
  • And so on.

In engineering terms, this is a process of making something new with existing old and bringing back to life.

Extensions/Additional floors

Extension of a building is adding an additional portion or a room to an existing building by                increasing the floor area.

Additional floor, is said when converting a building to single storey or multi storey building, if foundation of existing building permits.

 Various reasons are,

  • Need for additional work place/office.
  • Increase in family members.
  • Added floors/extensions can be rented.
  • And so on.


Demolition is destroying the entire existing building with the help of machines and man power.

Demolition is to be carried out without affecting the environment and neighbourhood.

Following are the various reason for demolishing a buildings.

  • Old structure/building.
  • While rebuying purpose of building may vary.
  • To build a new one.
  • And so on.


Rebuilding is a process of demolishing the existing building including the foundations, to build a new one.

  • Age of building.
  • Structure/Foundation strength may be affected.
  • Converting old to new.
  • And so on.


The term maintenance is ensuring the strength and appearance of the building remains good, in order to increase the durability of the structure/building

Periodic maintenance

To avoid certain extreme problems before it occurs, following measures are to be taken periodically or when it needed (symptoms).

  • Whitewash/coloring of walls.
  • Doors & windows maintenance.
  • Ventilators maintenance.
  • Metal grills & utility maintenance.
  • Floor treatment & maintenance.
  • Water carrying systems.
  • Supply lines.
  • Electrical maintenance.
  • Plinth area projection.
  • Terrace water draining systems.
  • Tree root problems.

Daily maintenance

To keep the surrounding/environment clean and to avoid some periodic maintenance problems daily maintenance is to be done. 

The followings are some of the needed daily maintenance.

  • Cleaning floors & walls.
  • Cleaning windows & glass panels.
  • Cleaning grills & doors.
  • Cleaning wash area & toilets.
  • Cleaning terrace area.
  • Cleaning the garbage & surroundings.


Approval is a legal permissions given by government. Depending upon the purposes approval are listed. 

The following are some of approvals to be taken for constructing a home.

  • Land approval.
  • Electricity board (EB).
  • Plan approval.
  • Loan approval.
  • Construction approval.


Anyone can build, only the professionals/experienced can create a quality living space “QLS”. 

Even many doesn’t aware/think about QLS. Everyone say we are the best at building then why “we always stand in need of better/good quality homes”. QLS provides a peaceful environment. 

The following are some of day-to-day problems which to be consider while constructing, but we have started to live with/without it.

  • Direct-sunlight.
  • Air-circulation.
  • Shadows
  • Heat
  • Insects
  • Noises
  • Utilizing spaces
  • Water management
  • Garbage/waste management
  • Security systems
  • Eco-friendly Environment


The term Manpower refers to the combined work of people. Man power plays a major role in construction industry. 

Manpower is proportional to productivity. Quality role of a manpower helps for the success of any kind of business. 

Trained/professional manpower improves the productivity by saving the cost, time, resources, and even earns more profit for The following are required manpower to build a home/building.

  • Mason
  • Helper (male/female)
  • Machine operators
  • Electrician
  • Plumber
  • Tiles layer
  • Painter
  • Carpenter
  • Grill/steel workers
  • Glass panel workers

In engineering terms,

  • Architects
  • Engineers
  • Manpower (workers).
  • Office assistances.


The quality of materials used for construction defines the quality of building. 

The following are some of the basic materials used for constructing a home/building.

  • Brick 
  •  Cement
  • Sand/M-sand.
  • Jelly (coarse aggregates).
  •  Woods
  •  Doors
  •  Windows
  • Grills/steels.
  •  Tiles
  •  Paints
  • Electrical materials.
  • Plumbing materials.
  • Sanitary materials.
  • Carpentry materials.
  • False ceiling materials.

This is a vague topic. Each material has more types and there are different methods to check the quality of each material.


In construction structure is said to be the body of a building. Structure is a combination of members like columns, beams, slabs and walls. These structures are designed in a way to bear loads.

  • Load-bearing structure.
  • Framed structure.

Load-bearing structure

Load-bearing structure, when loads on slab carried by walls to foundations. The load is supported by walls, there is no beams.

Load bearing structure (walls) are one of the earliest form of construction. 

Members of this type are:

  • Slabs
  • Walls
  • Foundations

Load distribution – [slab → wall → foundation]

Framed structure

Framed structure, when loads on slab carried by columns to foundations. The load is supported by beams and columns, here walls just acts as a barrier/separator. 

Members of this type are:

  • Slabs
  • Beams
  • Columns
  • Foundations

Load distribution – [Slabs → beams → columns → foundations]


Interior of a building helps to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. 

Interior of a home/building make indoor spaces functional, safe, and beautiful by determining space requirements and selecting essential and decorative items, such as colors, lighting, and materials. 

Followings are to be considered as interior of a home/building.

  • Utilizing spaces.
  •  Lightning
  •  Painting
  • Doors, windows.
  • Modular kitchen.
  • Carpentry works such as wardrobe, TV units.
  • False ceiling.
  • Electrical fittings.
  • Plumbing fittings.
  • Balcony/terrace plantings.
  • Decorative items such as wind chimes, photo frames.


Exterior is said to be outer face of a building. Exterior of a building gives a majestic look for buildings. 

People highly value about exterior of building as it is believed that it shows their status in a society.

The outer space inside the compound of a building is also considered as exterior works.

  • Elevation (front side of buildings).
  • Other sides of building (concentrated if exposed).
  • Gardening areas.
  • Compound walls.